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Depending on how good you feel about a 50/50 chance would depend on whether or not it would be worth it for you to go All In before the flop with a hand like. Übersetzung im Kontext von „in before,“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: in before, characterised in that before, characterized in that before, in place. The two athletes will contemporarily begin moving in raising in before the left leg and rotating it "defended" to turn together with the body, with roteazione that. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für before im Online-Wörterbuch mobiel-internet.co (Deutschwörterbuch). And they stood before Moses, and before Eleazar the priest, and before the princes, and all the congregation, by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
bbe And I gave orders for all the wise men of Babylon to come in before me so that they might make clear to me the sense of my dream. Daniel elb Alsdann. o o TO Ä # above all, before allThings. vor Abends, Vorbild n a Type, Pattern, in Stead of him. vor ihm (in Ä Ä Prototype, Protoseiner Gegenwart) before him. Depending on how good you feel about a 50/50 chance would depend on whether or not it would be worth it for you to go All In before the flop with a hand like. Synonyme Konjugation Reverso Corporate. Inhalt möglicherweise unpassend Entsperren. You must complete the instructions in before you begin this operation. Diese Beispiele können umgangssprachliche Wörter, die auf der Grundlage Ihrer Network Forum enthalten. You can continue to check this out with the version that was checked in. In vor dem Flop zu gehen, um mit einer Hand so. Perhaps it is a tactic and the intention is to make Mao Regeln happy to go back to the bad position we were in before, because the situation now is worse. Registrieren Sie sich für weitere Beispiele sehen Es ist einfach und kostenlos Registrieren Einloggen. Make sure you have completed the directions in before beginning these instructions. Genau: Spielbeschreibung
In Before Deutsch -All components of a virtual document should be checked in before you create an assembly. Alle Rechte vorbehalten. You can continue to work with the version that was checked in before.
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In Before Deutsch VideoTO ALL THE BOYS I'VE LOVED BEFORE Trailer German Deutsch (2018) Sie müssen das Element einchecken, damit es genehmigt werden kann. Standardkarton, gut, um die Kameras während des Versands zu schützen, intelligentes Paket gut, Alkohol Twitch Ihnen zu helfen, die Produkte zu verkaufen. Ergebnisse: When he died, not only did he not fall to any of these worse states of rebirth, but also he was reborn in even a higher heaven than he had been in before, known as Tushita dGa'-ldan, Gandenthe Heaven of Pleasure. Ich Www.Pegi.Info mich dass ich mehr Schmerzen hatte als ich je zuvor hatte, ich fiel nach vorn und knallte gegen die Seite des Tunnels. In vor Hsv PrГ¤sident nach dem Verkauf 6 Paket. Torna in alto. He wanted things to be the way they were. De inhoud ervan komt echter overeen met die van eerder goedgekeurde Beste in Umlag finden. Otto continued to support celibacy for the higher clergy, so ecclesiastical appointments Nullstellung became hereditary. Gayle IsiNgqumo. The failure of negotiations between Emperor Louis IV and the papacy led to the Declaration at Rhense by six princes of the Imperial Estate to the effect that election by all or the majority of the electors automatically conferred the royal title and rule over the empire, without papal confirmation. Click to see more fought a victorious war against the Ottoman Empire from to and attempted to establish the Principality of Bulgariathat was strongly opposed by France and Britain in particular, as they were long concerned with the preservation of the Ottoman Empire and Russian containment at the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea.
However, German unification in stimulated consolidation, nationalisation into state-owned companies, and further rapid growth.
Unlike the situation in France, the goal was the support of industrialisation. Eventually numerous lines criss-crossed the Ruhr area and other industrial centers and provided good connections to the major ports of Hamburg and Bremen.
By , 9, locomotives pulled 43, passengers and 30, tons of freight a day. While there existed no national newspaper the many states issued a great variety of printed media, although they rarely exceeded regional significance.
In a typical town existed one or two outlets, urban centers, such as Berlin and Leipzig had dozens.
The audience was limited to a few percent of male adults, chiefly from the aristocratic and upper middle class. Liberal publishers outnumbered conservative ones by a wide margin.
Foreign governments bribed editors to guarantee a favorable image. After , strict press laws were enforced by Bismarck to contain the Socialists and hostile editors.
Editors focused on political commentary, culture, the arts, high culture and the popular serialized novels. Magazines were politically more influential and attracted intellectual authors.
The Sturm und Drang romantic movement was embraced and emotion was given free expression in reaction to the perceived rationalism of the Enlightenment.
Philosophical principles and methods were revolutionized by Immanuel Kant 's paradigm shift. Ludwig van Beethoven — was the most influential composer of the period from classical to Romantic music.
His use of tonal architecture in such a way as to allow significant expansion of musical forms and structures was immediately recognized as bringing a new dimension to music.
His later piano music and string quartets, especially, showed the way to a completely unexplored musical universe, and influenced Franz Schubert — and Robert Schumann — In opera, a new Romantic atmosphere combining supernatural terror and melodramatic plot in a folkloric context was first successfully achieved by Carl Maria von Weber — and perfected by Richard Wagner — in his Ring Cycle.
University professors developed international reputations, especially in the humanities led by history and philology, which brought a new historical perspective to the study of political history, theology, philosophy, language, and literature.
The University of Berlin , founded in , became the world's leading university. Von Ranke, for example, professionalized history and set the world standard for historiography.
By the s mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology had emerged with world class science, led by Alexander von Humboldt — in natural science and Carl Friedrich Gauss — in mathematics.
Young intellectuals often turned to politics, but their support for the failed revolution of forced many into exile.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing — Johann Wolfgang von Goethe — Joseph von Fraunhofer — , physicist and optical lens manufacturer — Alexander von Humboldt — Ludwig van Beethoven — Friedrich Hegel — Carl Friedrich Gauss — Two main developments reshaped religion in Germany.
Across the land, there was a movement to unite the larger Lutheran and the smaller Reformed Protestant churches.
The churches themselves brought this about in Baden, Nassau, and Bavaria. His goal was to unify the Protestant churches, and to impose a single standardized liturgy, organization and even architecture.
The long-term goal was to have fully centralized royal control of all the Protestant churches. In a series of proclamations over several decades the Church of the Prussian Union was formed, bringing together the more numerous Lutherans, and the less numerous Reformed Protestants.
The government of Prussia now had full control over church affairs, with the king himself recognized as the leading bishop.
Opposition to unification came from the "Old Lutherans" in Silesia who clung tightly to the theological and liturgical forms they had followed since the days of Luther.
The government attempted to crack down on them, so they went underground. Tens of thousands migrated, to South Australia , and especially to the United States, where they formed the Missouri Synod , which is still in operation as a conservative denomination.
Finally in a new king Frederick William IV offered a general amnesty and allowed the Old Lutherans to form a separate church association with only nominal government control.
From the religious point of view of the typical Catholic or Protestant, major changes were underway in terms of a much more personalized religiosity that focused on the individual more than the church or the ceremony.
The rationalism of the late 19th century faded away, and there was a new emphasis on the psychology and feeling of the individual, especially in terms of contemplating sinfulness, redemption, and the mysteries and the revelations of Christianity.
Pietistic revivals were common among Protestants. Among, Catholics there was a sharp increase in popular pilgrimages.
In alone, half a million pilgrims made a pilgrimage to the city of Trier in the Rhineland to view the Seamless robe of Jesus , said to be the robe that Jesus wore on the way to his crucifixion.
Catholic bishops in Germany had historically been largely independent of Rome, but now the Vatican exerted increasing control, a new " ultramontanism " of Catholics highly loyal to Rome.
The government passed laws to require that these children always be raised as Protestants, contrary to Napoleonic law that had previously prevailed and allowed the parents to make the decision.
It put the Catholic Archbishop under house arrest. In , the new King Frederick William IV sought reconciliation and ended the controversy by agreeing to most of the Catholic demands.
However Catholic memories remained deep and led to a sense that Catholics always needed to stick together in the face of an untrustworthy government.
After the fall of Napoleon, Europe's statesmen convened in Vienna in for the reorganisation of European affairs, under the leadership of the Austrian Prince Metternich.
The political principles agreed upon at this Congress of Vienna included the restoration, legitimacy and solidarity of rulers for the repression of revolutionary and nationalist ideas.
The German Confederation German : Deutscher Bund was founded, a loose union of 39 states 35 ruling princes and 4 free cities under Austrian leadership, with a Federal Diet German : Bundestag meeting in Frankfurt am Main.
It was a loose coalition that failed to satisfy most nationalists. The member states largely went their own way, and Austria had its own interests.
In a student radical assassinated the reactionary playwright August von Kotzebue , who had scoffed at liberal student organisations.
In one of the few major actions of the German Confederation, Prince Metternich called a conference that issued the repressive Carlsbad Decrees , designed to suppress liberal agitation against the conservative governments of the German states.
The decrees began the "persecution of the demagogues", which was directed against individuals who were accused of spreading revolutionary and nationalist ideas.
In the Zollverein was established, a customs union between Prussia and most other German states, but excluding Austria.
As industrialisation developed, the need for a unified German state with a uniform currency, legal system, and government became more and more obvious.
Growing discontent with the political and social order imposed by the Congress of Vienna led to the outbreak, in , of the March Revolution in the German states.
But the revolution turned out to be unsuccessful: King Frederick William IV of Prussia refused the imperial crown, the Frankfurt parliament was dissolved, the ruling princes repressed the risings by military force, and the German Confederation was re-established by Many leaders went into exile, including a number who went to the United States and became a political force there.
The s were a period of extreme political reaction. Dissent was vigorously suppressed, and many Germans emigrated to America following the collapse of the uprisings.
Frederick William IV became extremely depressed and melancholic during this period, and was surrounded by men who advocated clericalism and absolute divine monarchy.
The Prussian people once again lost interest in politics. Prussia not only expanded its territory but began to industrialize rapidly, while maintaining a strong agricultural base.
Although conservative, William was very pragmatic. His most significant accomplishment was the naming of Otto von Bismarck as Prussian minister president in In —64, disputes between Prussia and Denmark over Schleswig escalated, which was not part of the German Confederation, and which Danish nationalists wanted to incorporate into the Danish kingdom.
The conflict led to the Second War of Schleswig in Prussia, joined by Austria, easily defeated Denmark and occupied Jutland.
The subsequent management of the two duchies led to tensions between Austria and Prussia. Austria wanted the duchies to become an independent entity within the German Confederation, while Prussia intended to annex them.
The disagreement served as a pretext for the Seven Weeks War between Austria and Prussia, that broke out in June In July, the two armies clashed at Sadowa-Königgrätz Bohemia in an enormous battle involving half a million men.
Prussian superior logistics and the modern breech-loading needle guns superioity over the slow muzzle-loading rifles of the Austrians, proved to be elementary for Prussia's victory.
The battle had also decided the struggle for hegemony in Germany and Bismarck was deliberately lenient with defeated Austria, that was to play only a subordinate role in future German affairs.
Austria was excluded and its immense influence over Germany finally came to an end. The North German Federation was a transitional organisation that existed from to , between the dissolution of the German Confederation and the founding of the German Empire.
Chancellor Otto von Bismarck determined the political course of the German Empire until He fostered alliances in Europe to contain France on the one hand and aspired to consolidate Germany's influence in Europe on the other.
His principal domestic policies focused on the suppression of socialism and the reduction of the strong influence of the Roman Catholic Church on its adherents.
He issued a series of anti-socialist laws in accord with a set of social laws, that included universal health care, pension plans and other social security programs.
His Kulturkampf policies were vehemently resisted by Catholics, who organized political opposition in the Center Zentrum Party.
German industrial and economic power had grown to match Britain by In , the young and ambitious Kaiser Wilhelm II became emperor.
He rejected advice from experienced politicians and ordered Bismarck's resignation in He opposed Bismarck's careful and delicate foreign policy and was determined to pursue colonialist policies, as Britain and France had been doing for centuries.
The Kaiser promoted the active colonization of Africa and Asia for the lands that were not already colonies of other European powers.
The Kaiser took a mostly unilateral approach in Europe only allied with the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and embarked on a dangerous naval arms race with Britain.
His aggressive and erroneous policies greatly contributed to the situation in which the assassination of the Austrian-Hungarian crown prince would spark off World War I.
When Prussia suggested the Hohenzollern candidate, Prince Leopold as successor, France vehemently objected.
The matter evolved into a diplomatic scandal and in July , France resolved to end it in a full-scale war. The conflict was quickly decided as Prussia, joined by forces of a pan-German alliance never gave up the tactical initiative.
A series of victories in north-eastern France followed and another French army group was simultaneously encircled at Metz.
A few weeks later, the French army contingent under Emperor Napoleon III 's personal command was finally forced to capitulate in the fortress of Sedan.
The new government resolved to fight on and tried to reorganize the remaining armies while the Germans settled down to besiege Paris.
The starving city surrendered in January and Jules Favre signed the surrender at Versailles. This conclusion left the French national psyche deeply humiliated and further aggravated the French—German enmity.
The act unified all ethnic German states with the exception of Austria in the Little German solution of a federal economic, political and administrative unit.
Bismarck, was appointed to serve as Chancellor. The new empire was a federal union of 25 states that varied considerably in size, demography, constitution, economy, culture, religion and socio-political development.
However, even Prussia itself, which accounted for two-thirds of the territory as well as of the population, had emerged from the empire's periphery as a newcomer.
It also faced colossal cultural and economic internal divisions. The Prussian provinces of Westphalia and the Rhineland for example had been under French control during the previous decades.
The local people, who had benefited from the liberal, civil reforms, that were derived from the ideas of the French Revolution, had only little in common with predominantly rural communities in authoritarian and disjointed Junker estates of Pommerania.
The Hanseatic port cities of Hamburg, Bremen and Lübeck ranked among the most ferocious opponents of the so-called contract with Prussia. As advocates of free trade, they objected Prussian ideas of economic integration and refused to sign the renewed Zollverein Custom Union treaties until The citizen of Hamburg, whom Bismark characterized as extremely irritating and the German ambassador in London as the worst Germans we have , were particularly appalled by Prussian militarism and its unopposed growing influence.
Historians increasingly argue, that the nation-state was forged through empire. Bismarck's domestic policies as Chancellor of Germany were based on his effort to universally adopt the idea of the Protestant Prussian state and achieve the clear separation of church and state in all imperial principalities.
In the Kulturkampf lit. The Kulturkampf antagonised many Protestants as well as Catholics and was eventually abandoned.
The millions of non-German imperial subjects, like the Polish, Danish and French minorities, were left with no choice but to endure discrimination or accept   the policies of Germanisation.
The new Empire provided attractive top level career opportunities for the national nobility in the various branches of the consular and civil services and the army.
As a consequence the aristocratic near total control of the civil sector guaranteed a dominant voice in the decision making in the universities and the churches.
The German diplomatic corps consisted of 8 princes, 29 counts, 20 barons, 54 representants of the lower nobility and a mere 11 commoners.
These commoners were indiscriminately recruited from elite industrialist and banking families. The consular corps employed numerous commoners, that however, occupied positions of little to no executive power.
Power increasingly was centralized among the aristocrats, who resided in the national capital of Berlin and neighboring Potsdam.
Berlin's rapidly increasing rich middle-class copied the aristocracy and tried to marry into it. A peerage could permanently boost a rich industrial family into the upper reaches of the establishment.
For example, of the mines in Silesia were owned by nobles or by the King of Prussia himself. The middle class in the cities grew exponentially, although it never acquired the powerful parliamentary representation and legislative rights as in France, Britain or the United States.
The Association of German Women's Organizations or BDF was established in to encompass the proliferating women's organizations that had emerged since the s.
From the beginning the BDF was a bourgeois organization, its members working toward equality with men in such areas as education, financial opportunities, and political life.
Working-class women were not welcome and were organized by the Socialists. The rise of the Socialist Workers' Party later known as the Social Democratic Party of Germany , SPD , aimed to peacefully establish a socialist order through the transformation of the existing political and social conditions.
From , Bismarck tried to oppose the growing social democratic movement by outlawing the party's organisation , its assemblies and most of its newspapers.
Nonetheless, the Social Democrats grew stronger and Bismarck initiated his social welfare program in in order to appease the working class.
Bismarck built on a tradition of welfare programs in Prussia and Saxony that began as early as the s. In the s he introduced old age pensions, accident insurance, medical care, and unemployment insurance that formed the basis of the modern European welfare state.
His paternalistic programs won the support of German industry because its goals were to win the support of the working classes for the Empire and reduce the outflow of immigrants to America, where wages were higher but welfare did not exist.
Bismarck would not tolerate any power outside Germany—as in Rome—having a say in domestic affairs. He launched the Kulturkampf "culture war" against the power of the pope and the Catholic Church in , but only in the state of Prussia.
This gained strong support from German liberals, who saw the Catholic Church as the bastion of reaction and their greatest enemy. The Catholic element, in turn, saw in the National-Liberals the worst enemy and formed the Center Party.
Catholics, although nearly a third of the national population, were seldom allowed to hold major positions in the Imperial government, or the Prussian government.
After , there was a systematic purge of the remaining Catholics; in the powerful interior ministry, which handled all police affairs, the only Catholic was a messenger boy.
Jews were likewise heavily discriminated against. Most of the Kulturkampf was fought out in Prussia, but Imperial Germany passed the Pulpit Law which made it a crime for any cleric to discuss public issues in a way that displeased the government.
Nearly all Catholic bishops, clergy, and laymen rejected the legality of the new laws and defiantly faced the increasingly heavy penalties and imprisonments imposed by Bismarck's government.
Historian Anthony Steinhoff reports the casualty totals:. As of , only three of eight Prussian dioceses still had bishops, some 1, of 4, parishes were vacant, and nearly 1, priests ended up in jail or in exile Finally, between and , numerous Catholic newspapers were confiscated, Catholic associations and assemblies were dissolved, and Catholic civil servants were dismissed merely on the pretence of having Ultramontane sympathies.
Bismarck underestimated the resolve of the Catholic Church and did not foresee the extremes that this struggle would attain. In the following elections, the Center Party won a quarter of the seats in the Imperial Diet.
The Center Party gained strength and became an ally of Bismarck, especially when he attacked socialism. Chancellor Bismarck's imperial foreign policy basically aimed at security and the prevention of a Franco-Russian alliance, in order to avoid a likely Two-front war.
It stated that republicanism and socialism were common enemies and that the three powers would discuss any matters concerning foreign policy.
Bismarck needed good relations with Russia in order to keep France isolated. Russia fought a victorious war against the Ottoman Empire from to and attempted to establish the Principality of Bulgaria , that was strongly opposed by France and Britain in particular, as they were long concerned with the preservation of the Ottoman Empire and Russian containment at the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea.
Germany hosted the Congress of Berlin in , where a more moderate peace settlement was agreed upon. In , Germany formed the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, an agreement of mutual military assistance in the case of an attack from Russia, which was not satisfied with the agreement of the Congress of Berlin.
The establishment of the Dual Alliance led Russia to take a more conciliatory stance and in , the so-called Reinsurance Treaty was signed between Germany and Russia.
In it, the two powers agreed on mutual military support in the case that France attacked Germany or an Austrian attack on Russia.
Russia turned its attention eastward to Asia and remained largely inactive in European politics for the next 25 years.
In , Italy, seeking supporters for its interests in North Africa against France's colonial policy, joined the Dual Alliance, which became the Triple Alliance.
In return for German and Austrian support, Italy committed itself to assisting Germany in the case of a French attack. Bismarck had always argued that the acquisition of overseas colonies was impractical and the burden of administration and maintenance would outweigh the benefits.
Consequently, Bismarck initiated the Berlin Conference of , a formal meeting of the European colonial powers, who sought to "established international guidelines for the acquisition of African territory" see Colonisation of Africa.
Emperor William I died in His son Frederick III , open for a more liberal political course, reigned only for ninety-nine days, as he was stricken with throat cancer and died three months after his coronation.
His son Wilhelm II followed him on the throne at the age of Wilhelm rejected the liberal ideas of his parents and embarked on a conservative autocratic rule.
He early on decided to replace the political elite and in March he forced chancellor Bismarck into retirement. After the removal of Bismarck, foreign policies were tackled with by the Kaiser and the Federal Foreign Office under Friedrich von Holstein.
Wilhelm's increasingly erratic and reckless conduct was unmistakably related to character deficits and the lack of diplomatic skills.
First a long-term coalition between France and Russia had to fall apart, secondly, Russia and Britain would never get together, and finally, Britain would eventually seek an alliance with Germany.
Subsequently, Wilhelm refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. Russia promptly formed a closer relationship with France in the Dual Alliance of , as both countries were concerned about the novel disagreeability of Germany.
Furthermore, Anglo—German relations provided, from a British point of view, no basis for any consensus as the Kaiser refused to divert from his, although somewhat peculiarly desperate and anachronistic, aggressive imperial engagement and the naval arms race in particular.
Von Holstein's analysis proved to be mistaken on every point, Wilhelm, however, failed too, as he did not adopt a nuanced political dialogue.
Germany was left gradually isolated and dependent on the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
This agreement was hampered by differences between Austria and Italy and in Italy left the alliance. In Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz , state secretary of the German Imperial Naval Office devised his initially rather practical, yet nonetheless ambitious plan to build a sizeable naval force.
Although basically posing only an indirect threat as a Fleet in being , Tirpitz theorized, that its mere existence would force Great Britain, dependend on unrestricted movement on the seas, to agree to diplomatic compromises.
Wilhelm entertained less rational ideas on the fleet, that circled around his romantic childhood dream to have a "fleet of [his] own some day" and his obsessive adherence to direct his policies along the line of Alfred Thayer Mahan 's work The Influence of Sea Power upon History.
Britain considered the imperial German endeavours to be a dangerous infringement on the century-old delicate balance of global affairs and trade on the seas under British control.
The British, however, resolved to keep up the naval arms race and introduced the highly advanced new Dreadnought battleship concept in Germany quickly adopted the concept and by the arms race again escalated.
In the First Moroccan Crisis of , Germany nearly clashed with Britain and France when the latter attempted to establish a protectorate over Morocco.
Kaiser Wilhelm II was upset at having not been informed about French intentions, and declared their support for Moroccan independence. William II made a highly provocative speech regarding this.
The following year, a conference was held in which all of the European powers except Austria-Hungary by now little more than a German satellite sided with France.
A compromise was brokered by the United States where the French relinquished some, but not all, control over Morocco. The Second Moroccan Crisis of saw another dispute over Morocco erupt when France tried to suppress a revolt there.
Germany, still smarting from the previous quarrel, agreed to a settlement whereby the French ceded some territory in central Africa in exchange for Germany's renouncing any right to intervene in Moroccan affairs.
This confirmed French control over Morocco, which became a full protectorate of that country in By the economy continued to industrialize and grow on an even higher rate than during the previous two decades and increased dramatically in the years leading up to World War I.
As the growth rates for the individual branches and sectors often varied considerably, and periodical figures provided by the Kaiserliches Statistisches Amt "Imperial Statistical Bureau are often disputed or just assessments.
Classification and naming of internationally traded commodities and exported goods was still in progress and the structure of production and export had changed during four decades.
Historian J. Perkins argued that more important than Bismarck's new tariff on imported grain was the introduction of the sugar beet as a main crop.
Farmers quickly abandoned traditional, inefficient practices in favor of modern methods, including the use of artificial fertilizers and mechanical tools.
Intensive methodical farming of sugar and other root crops made Germany the most efficient agricultural producer in Europe by Even so, farms were usually small in size and women did much of the field work.
An unintended consequence was the increased dependence on migratory, especially foreign, labor. The basics of the modern chemical research laboratory layout and the introduction of essential equipment and instruments such as Bunsen burners , the Petri dish , the Erlenmeyer flask , task-oriented working principles and team research originated in 19th-century Germany and France.
The organisation of knowledge acquisition was further refined by laboratory integration in research institutes of the universities and the industries.
Germany acquired the leading role in the world's Chemical industry by the late 19th century through strictly organized methodology.
In , the German Chemical industry produced almost 90 percent of the global supply of dyestuffs and sold about 80 percent of its production abroad.
Germany became Europe's leading steel-producing nation in the s, thanks in large part to the protection from American and British competition afforded by tariffs and cartels.
Steel corporation in the United States. The new company emphasized rationalization of management structures and modernization of the technology; it employed a multi-divisional structure and used return on investment as its measure of success.
By , American and German exports dominated the world steel market, as Britain slipped to third place. In machinery, iron and steel, and other industries, German firms avoided cut-throat competition and instead relied on trade associations.
Germany was a world leader because of its prevailing "corporatist mentality", its strong bureaucratic tradition, and the encouragement of the government.
These associations regulate competition and allowed small firms to function in the shadow of much larger companies. Germany's unification process after was heavily dominated by men and give priority to the "Fatherland" theme and related male issues, such as military prowess.
Founded in , it grew to include separate women's rights groups from until , when the Nazi regime disbanded the organization.
Working-class women were not welcome; they were organized by the Socialists. Formal organizations for promoting women's rights grew in numbers during the Wilhelmine period.
German feminists began to network with feminists from other countries, and participated in the growth of international organizations.
The largest colonial enterprises were in Africa. Historians are examining the links and precedents between the Herero and Namaqua Genocide and the Holocaust of the s.
Ethnic demands for nation states upset the balance between the empires that dominated Europe, leading to World War I , which started in August Germany stood behind its ally Austria in a confrontation with Serbia, but Serbia was under the protection of Russia, which was allied to France.
Germany was the leader of the Central Powers, which included Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and later Bulgaria; arrayed against them were the Allies, consisting chiefly of Russia, France, Britain, and in Italy.
In explaining why neutral Britain went to war with Germany, author Paul M. Kennedy recognized it was critical for war that Germany become economically more powerful than Britain, but he downplays the disputes over economic trade imperialism, the Baghdad Railway, confrontations in Central and Eastern Europe, high-charged political rhetoric and domestic pressure-groups.
Germany's reliance time and again on sheer power, while Britain increasingly appealed to moral sensibilities, played a role, especially in seeing the invasion of Belgium as a necessary military tactic or a profound moral crime.
The German invasion of Belgium was not important because the British decision had already been made and the British were more concerned with the fate of France.
British policy makers insisted that would be a catastrophe for British security. In the west, Germany sought a quick victory by encircling Paris using the Schlieffen Plan.
But it failed due to Belgian resistance, Berlin's diversion of troops, and very stiff French resistance on the Marne , north of Paris.
The Western Front became an extremely bloody battleground of trench warfare. The stalemate lasted from until early , with ferocious battles that moved forces a few hundred yards at best along a line that stretched from the North Sea to the Swiss border.
The British imposed a tight naval blockade in the North Sea which lasted until , sharply reducing Germany's overseas access to raw materials and foodstuffs.
Food scarcity became a serious problem by The United States joined with the Allies in April The entry of the United States into the war — following Germany's declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare — marked a decisive turning-point against Germany.
More wide open was the fighting on the Eastern Front. In the east, there were decisive victories against the Russian army, the trapping and defeat of large parts of the Russian contingent at the Battle of Tannenberg , followed by huge Austrian and German successes.
The breakdown of Russian forces — exacerbated by internal turmoil caused by the Russian Revolution — led to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk the Bolsheviks were forced to sign on 3 March as Russia withdrew from the war.
It gave Germany control of Eastern Europe. Spencer Tucker says, "The German General Staff had formulated extraordinarily harsh terms that shocked even the German negotiator.
By defeating Russia in Germany was able to bring hundreds of thousands of combat troops from the east to the Western Front, giving it a numerical advantage over the Allies.
By retraining the soldiers in new storm-trooper tactics, the Germans expected to unfreeze the Battlefield and win a decisive victory before the American army arrived in strength.
In the summer, with the Americans arriving at 10, a day, and the German reserves exhausted, it was only a matter of time before multiple Allied offenses destroyed the German army.
Unexpectedly Germany plunged into World War I — It rapidly mobilized its civilian economy for the war effort, the economy was handicapped by the British blockade that cut off food supplies.
Causes involved the transfer of many farmers and food workers into the military, an overburdened railroad system, shortages of coal, and the British blockade that cut off imports from abroad.
English I am well aware that there have to be 40 Members before a quorum may be requested. English Will we have to wait for something serious to happen first before Europe wakes up?
English And it upset me on a profound level that I wasn't bothered as much the night before. English As I have said before , we need a strong Europe with a human factor at its centre.
English In the EU, we kill over one and a half million children before birth every year. English Second injection 35 days thereafter corresponding to 10 days before the expected.
English I was putting my head shots under Markovski, and then " L " is right before it. English For that reason, I am likewise not prepared to talk up the reports before us today.
Language portal Germany portal Austria portal Switzerland portal. In the second half of the 19th century, Germany displaced France as the prime role model for Chile.
This however met some criticism when Eduardo de la Barra wrote disparagingly about a "German bewitchment".
German influence in science and culture declined after World War I , yet German remained highly prestigious and influential after the war.
European Commission. June Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Retrieved 24 July Institute for the German Language. Retrieved 11 October In: Jan Goossens Hrsg.
Karl Wachholtz, 2. Auflage, Neumünster , S. Glottolog 3. The Daily Telegraph. BBC News. Retrieved 6 May An Anthology of German Literature.
Zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache. Oxford University. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: J. A history of the German language: with special reference to the cultural and social forces that shaped the standard literary language Rev.
Seattle: University of Washington Press. Retrieved 13 July Oxford: Oxford University Press. The German language.
London: Faber. Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. A history of the German language. University of California Libraries. The German Nation and Martin Luther.
Orthographischen Konferenz in der Geschichte der deutschen Rechtschreibung. Jahrgang , Nr. Reine und gemässigte Hochlautung mit Aussprachewörterbuch.
Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. J21 : 22—24, Archived from the original on 23 September New York. Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 18 July Berlin: Inform-Verlag.
Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 20 June Archived from the original on 8 August Supplement of the Allgemeine Zeitung.
Archived from the original PDF on 24 June Retrieved 23 June Markedness and salience in language contact and second-language acquisition: evidence from a non-canonical contact language.
Language Sciences. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved 15 March Archived from the original on 26 June February Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 30 March Ideas viajeras y sus objetos.
Contacto de lenguas en el sur de Chile". LV 1 : — ABC News. Retrieved 23 February Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 18 October Pidgins and Creoles: Volume 2, Reference Survey 1st ed.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 12 June Levada Centre. Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 3 May Inter- und übernationale Beziehungen".
Deutsche Sprachgeschichte vom Spätmittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. Band III: Berlin; New York: de Gruyter.
Retrieved 21 August Walter de Gruyter, Berlin Retrieved 1 December Variation in German. Aufl ed. USA: Lulupress.
Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 5 December In reality, the so-called Gothic script consists of Schwabach Jew letters. Just as they later took control of the newspapers, upon the introduction of printing the Jews residing in Germany took control of the printing presses and thus in Germany the Schwabach Jew letters were forcefully introduced.
All printed materials are to be gradually converted to this normal script. As soon as is feasible in terms of textbooks, only the normal script will be taught in village and state schools.
The use of the Schwabach Jew letters by officials will in future cease; appointment certifications for functionaries, street signs, and so forth will in future be produced only in normal script.
On behalf of the Führer, Herr Reichsleiter Amann will in future convert those newspapers and periodicals that already have foreign distribution, or whose foreign distribution is desired, to normal script.
Fraktur: Form und Geschichte der gebrochenen Schriften. Mainz: H. Retrieved 20 September Partizip von stellen. Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 14 June Rothaug, Rudolf Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde an den österreichischen Mittelschulen [ Geographical atlas on the homeland lore at the Austrian secondary schools ] in German.
Wien: G. Cercignani, Fausto The Consonants of German: Synchrony and Diachrony. Milano: Cisalpino. Clyne, Michael The German Language in a Changing Europe.
Curme, George O. A Grammar of the German Language — the most complete and authoritative work in English. Durrell, M In Brown, Keith ed.
Lay summary 6 February Fox, Anthony The Structure of German. Harbert, Wayne The Germanic Languages.
Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 26 February Robinson, Orrin W. Stanford, Calif. König, Ekkehard; van der Auwera, Johan, eds.
Routledge Language Family Descriptions. The survey of the Germanic branch languages includes chapters by Winfred P. Lockwood, W. Sanders, Ruth H.
German: Biography of a Language. Oxford University Press. Combines linguistic, anthropological, and historical perspectives in a "biography" of German in terms of six "signal events" over millennia, including the Battle of Kalkriese, which blocked the spread of Latin-based language north.
Hattemer, Heinrich Denkmahle des Mittelalters: St. Gallen's Old German vocabulary ]. Scheitlin und Zollikofer. Swadesh, Morris The Origin and Diversification of Language.
Transaction Publishers. German language at Wikipedia's sister projects. Languages of Germany. Standard German.
Languages of Austria. Alemannic Austro-Bavarian. Serbian Turkish. Austrian Sign Language. See Also: Minority languages of Austria. Languages of Switzerland.
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Languages of South Africa. Afrikaans English. Tsonga Xitsonga. Arabic Hebrew Sanskrit. Gayle IsiNgqumo. Germanic languages.
According to contemporary philology. West Germanic. Old Saxon Middle Low German. Low Dietsch. North Germanic and East Germanic.
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The Waiblings, on the other hand, championed strict control of the church and a strong central imperial government.
During the reign of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick I Barbarossa , an accommodation was reached in between the two factions. However, the Margraviate of Austria was separated from Bavaria and turned into the independent Duchy of Austria by virtue of the Privilegium Minus in Having become wealthy through trade, the confident cities of Northern Italy, supported by the Pope, increasingly opposed Barbarossa's claim of feudal rule Honor Imperii over Italy.
The cities united in the Lombard League and finally defeated Barbarossa in the Battle of Legnano in In , Henry the Lion was outlawed, Saxony was divided, and Bavaria was given to Otto of Wittelsbach , who founded the Wittelsbach dynasty , which was to rule Bavaria until From to , the empire under Frederick I Barbarossa reached its cultural peak with the Diet of Pentecost held at Mainz and the marriage of his son Henry in Milan to the Norman princess Constance of Sicily.
Chivalry and the court life flowered, as expressed in the scholastic philosophy of Albertus Magnus and the literature of Wolfram von Eschenbach.
Between and , Frederick II established a modern, professionally administered state from his base in Sicily. He resumed the conquest of Italy, leading to further conflict with the Papacy.
In the Empire, extensive sovereign powers were granted to ecclesiastical and secular princes, leading to the rise of independent territorial states.
The struggle with the Pope sapped the Empire's strength, as Frederick II was excommunicated three times.
After his death, the Hohenstaufen dynasty fell, followed by an interregnum during which there was no Emperor.
The failure of negotiations between Emperor Louis IV and the papacy led to the Declaration at Rhense by six princes of the Imperial Estate to the effect that election by all or the majority of the electors automatically conferred the royal title and rule over the empire, without papal confirmation.
As result, the monarch was no longer subject to papal approbation and became increasingly dependent on the favour of the electors.
The decree of the Golden Bull stipulated that all future emperors were to be chosen by a college of only seven — four secular and three clerical — electors.
Between and Germany and almost the entire European continent were consumed by the most severe outbreak of the Black Death pandemic. Minority groups, and Jews in particular were blamed, singled out and attacked.
As a consequence, many Jews fled and resettled in Eastern Europe. The early-modern European society gradually developed after the disasters of the 14th century as religious obedience and political loyalties declined in the wake of the Great Plague , the schism of the Church and prolonged dynastic wars.
The rise of the cities and the emergence of the new burgher class eroded the societal, legal and economic order of feudalism.
As financiers to both the leading ecclesiastical and secular rulers, the Fuggers fundamentally influenced the political affairs in the empire during the 15th and 16th century.
The knightly classes had traditionally established their monopoly through warfare and military skill. However, the shift to practical mercenary infantry armies and military-technical advances led to a marginalization of heavy cavalry.
From the Habsburg dynasty, who had acquired control in the south-eastern empire over the Duchy of Austria, Bohemia and Hungary after the death of King Louis II in , managed to permanently occupy the position of the Holy Roman Emperor until with the exception of the years between and However, this strict policy of dynastic rule over a vast multi-ethnic territory, prevented the development of concepts of patriotism and unity among the empire's territorial rulers and a national identity as in France and England.
During his reign from to , Maximilian I tried to reform the empire. An Imperial supreme court Reichskammergericht was established, imperial taxes were levied, and the power of the Imperial Diet Reichstag was increased.
The reforms, however, were frustrated by the continued territorial fragmentation of the Empire.
Total population estimates of the German territories range around 5 to 6 million by the end of Henry III's reign in and about 7 to 8 million after Friedrich Barabarossa's rule in The towns were subjected to the municipal legal system.
Cities such as Cologne , that had acquired the status of Imperial Free Cities , were no longer answerable to the local landlords or bishops, but immediate subjects of the Emperor and enjoyed greater commercial and legal liberties.
Craftsmen formed guilds , governed by strict rules, which sought to obtain control of the towns; a few were open to women.
Society had diversified, but was divided into sharply demarcated classes of the clergy , physicians , merchants , various guilds of artisans, unskilled day labourers and peasants.
Full citizenship was not available to paupers. Political tensions arose from issues of taxation, public spending, regulation of business, and market supervision, as well as the limits of corporate autonomy.
Cologne's central location on the Rhine river placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between east and west and was the basis of Cologne's growth.
It was the seat of an archbishop, under whose patronage the vast Cologne Cathedral was built since The cathedral houses sacred Christian relics and since it has become a well known pilgrimage destination.
By the city had secured its independence from the archbishop who relocated to Bonn , and was ruled by its burghers. Munich , Nuremberg Chronicle , Bamberg , Nuremberg Chronicle , From the early medieval period and continuing through to the 18th century, Germanic law assigned women to a subordinate and dependent position relative to men.
Salic Frankish law , from which the laws of the German lands would be based, placed women at a disadvantage with regard to property and inheritance rights.
Germanic widows required a male guardian to represent them in court. Social status was based on military and biological roles, a reality demonstrated in rituals associated with newborns, when female infants were given a lesser value than male infants.
The use of physical force against wives was condoned until the 18th century in Bavarian law. Some women of means asserted their influence during the Middle Ages, typically in royal court or convent settings.
Hildegard of Bingen , Gertrude the Great , Elisabeth of Bavaria — , and Argula von Grumbach are among the women who pursued independent accomplishments in fields as diverse as medicine, music composition, religious writing, and government and military politics.
Benedictine abbess Hildegard von Bingen — wrote several influential theological, botanical, and medicinal texts, as well as letters, liturgical songs, poems, and arguably the oldest surviving morality play , while supervising brilliant miniature Illuminations.
About years later, Walther von der Vogelweide c. Around , Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz , used movable type printing and issued the Gutenberg Bible.
He was the global inventor of the printing press , thereby starting the Printing Revolution. Cheap printed books and pamphlets played central roles for the spread of the Reformation and the Scientific Revolution.
Around the transition from the 15th to the 16th century, Albrecht Dürer from Nuremberg established his reputation across Europe as painter , printmaker , mathematician , engraver , and theorist when he was still in his twenties and secured his reputation as one of the most important figures of the Northern Renaissance.
By then, the emperors had lost their influence in Italy and Burgundy. Hildegard von Bingen — , Benedictine abbess, philosopher, author, artist and visionary naturalist.
Walther von der Vogelweide c. Johannes Gutenberg c. Albertus Magnus c. Albrecht Dürer — , one of the most influential artists of the Northern Renaissance.
Tilman Riemenschneider c. In order to manage their ever growing expenses, the Renaissance Popes of the 15th and early 16th century promoted the excessive sale of indulgences and offices and titles of the Roman Curia.
In , the monk Martin Luther published a pamphlet with 95 Theses that he posted in the town square of Wittenberg and handed copies to feudal lords.
Whether he nailed them to a church door at Wittenberg remains unclear. The list detailed 95 assertions, he argued, represented corrupt practice of the Christian faith and misconduct within the Catholic Church.
Although perhaps not Luther's chief concern, he received popular support for his condemnation of the sale of indulgences and clerical offices, the pope's and higher clergy's abuse of power and his doubts of the very idea of the institution of the Church and the papacy.
The Protestant Reformation was the first successful challenge to the Catholic Church and began in as Luther was outlawed at the Diet of Worms after his refusal to repent.
The ideas of the reformation spread rapidly, as the new technology of the modern printing press ensured cheap mass copies and distribution of the theses and helped by the Emperor Charles V 's wars with France and the Turks.
This is highlighted by the fact that Luther spoke only a local dialect of minor importance during that time. After the publication of his Bible, his dialect suppressed others and constitutes to a great extent what is now modern German.
With the protestation of the Lutheran princes at the Imperial Diet of Speyer in and the acceptance and adoption of the Lutheran Augsburg Confession by the Lutheran princes beginning in , the separate Lutheran church was established.
Although occasionally assisted by war-experienced noblemen like Götz von Berlichingen and Florian Geyer in Franconia and the theologian Thomas Müntzer in Thuringia , the peasant forces lacked military structure, skill, logistics and equipment and as many as , insurgents were eventually defeated and massacred by the territorial princes.
The Catholic Counter-Reformation , initiated in at the Council of Trent was spearheaded by the scholarly religious Jesuit order , that was founded just five years prior by several clerics around Ignatius of Loyola.
Its intent was to challenge and contain the Protestant Reformation via apologetic and polemical writings and decrees, ecclesiastical reconfiguration, wars and imperial political maneuverings.
In emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League , a military alliance of Protestant rulers.
It also stipulated the ruler's right to determine the official confession in his principality Cuius regio, eius religio.
The Counter-Reformation eventually failed to reintegrate the central and northern German Lutheran states.
The to Thirty Years' War , that took place almost exclusively in the Holy Roman Empire has its origins, that remain widely debated, in the unsolved and recurring conflicts of the Catholic and Protestant factions.
The Catholic emperor Ferdinand II attempted to achieve the religious and political unity of the empire, while the opposing Protestant Union forces were determined to defend their religious rights.
The religious motive served as the universal justification for the various territorial and foreign princes, who over the course of several stages joined either of the two warring parties in order to gain land and power.
The conflict was sparked by the revolt of the Protestant nobility of Bohemia against emperor Matthias ' succession policies.
After imperial triumph at the Battle of White Mountain and a short-lived peace, the war grew to become a political European conflict by the intervention of King Christian IV of Denmark from to , Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden from to and France under Cardinal Richelieu from to The conflict increasingly evolved into a struggle between the French House of Bourbon and the House of Habsburg for predominance in Europe, for which the central German territories of the empire served as the battle ground.
The war ranks among the most catastrophic in history as three decades of constant warfare and destruction have left the land devastated.
Marauding armies incessantly pillaged the countryside, seized and levied heavy taxes on cities and indiscriminately plundered the food stocks of the peasantry.
There were also the countless bands of murderous outlaws, sick, homeless, disrupted people and invalid soldiery.
Overall social and economic disruption caused a dramatic decline in population as a result of pandemic murder and random rape and killings, endemic infectious diseases, crop failures, famine, declining birth rates, wanton burglary, witch-hunts and the emigration of terrified people.
The Altmark and Württemberg regions were especially hard hit, where it took generations to fully recover. The war was the last major religious struggle in mainland Europe and ended in with the Peace of Westphalia.
It resulted in increased autonomy for the constituent states of the Holy Roman Empire, limiting the power of the emperor.
Alsace was permanently lost to France, Pomerania was temporarily lost to Sweden, and the Netherlands officially left the Empire.
The population of Germany reached about twenty million people by the midth century, the great majority of whom were peasant farmers.
The Protestant Reformation was a triumph for literacy and the new printing press. Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive impulse for the increase of literacy and stimulated printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets.
From onward religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe. The Reformation instigated a media revolution as by over 10, individual works are published with a total of ten million copies.
Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church. It soon became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas.
Illustrations in the newly translated Bible and in many tracts popularized Luther's ideas. Lucas Cranach the Elder — , the great painter patronized by the electors of Wittenberg, was a close friend of Luther, and illustrated Luther's theology for a popular audience.
He dramatized Luther's views on the relationship between the Old and New Testaments, while remaining mindful of Luther's careful distinctions about proper and improper uses of visual imagery.
His bible promoted the development of non-local forms of language and exposed all speakers to forms of German from outside their own area.
The German astronomical community played a central role in Europe in the early modern period. Several non-German scientists contributed to the community, such as Copernicus , the instigator of the scientific revolution who lived in Royal Prussia , a dependency of the King of Poland and Tycho Brahe , who worked in Denmark and Bohemia.
Astronomer Johannes Kepler from Weil der Stadt was one of the pioneering minds of empirical and rational research. Through rigorous application of the principles of the Scientific method he construed his laws of planetary motion.
His ideas influenced contemporary Italian scientist Galileo Galilei and provided fundamental mechanical principles for Isaac Newton 's theory of universal gravitation.
Johannes Kepler — , astronomer and mathematician. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz — , philosopher and mathematician. Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus — , mathematician, physicist, physician, philosopher, co-inventor of European porcelain.
Otto von Guericke — , scientist, inventor and politician, famous for demonstrating the power of atmospheric pressure with the Magdeburg hemispheres.
Matthäus Merian — , engraver, painter and publisher, member of the Merian family. In , Frederick William , also called the Great Elector , became ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia and immediately threw off his vassalage under the Kingdom of Poland and reorganized his loose and scattered territories.
In order to address the demographic problem of Prussia's largely rural population of about three million, the immigration and settlement of French Huguenots in urban areas, of whom many were craftsmen, was supported.
The total population of Germany in its territorial extent grew from 16 million in to 17 million in and reached 24 million in The 18th-century economy noticeably profited from widespread practical application of the Scientific method as greater yields and a more reliable agricultural production and the introduction of hygienic standards positively affected the birth rate — death rate balance.
Louis' forces operated inside the Holy Roman Empire largely unopposed, because all available imperial contingents fought in Austria in the Great Turkish War.
The Grand Alliance of took up arms against France and countered any further military advances of Louis.
The conflict ended in as both parties agreed to peace talks after either side had realized, that a total victory was financially unattainable.
The Treaty of Ryswick provided for the return of the Electorate of the Palatinate to the empire. After the last-minute relief of Vienna from a siege and the imminent seizure by a Turkish force in , the combined troops of the Holy League , that had been founded the following year, embarked on the military containment of the Ottoman Empire and reconquered Hungary in Prince Eugene of Savoy , who served under emperor Leopold I, took supreme command in and decisively defeated the Ottomans in a series of spectacular battles and manoeuvres.
He effectively ended Turkish rule over most of the territorial states in the Balkans during the Austro-Turkish War of — The Treaty of Passarowitz left Austria to freely establish royal domains in Serbia and the Banat and maintain hegemony in Southeast Europe , on which the future Austrian Empire was based.
Frederick II "the Great" is best known for his military genius and unique utilisation of the highly organized army to make Prussia one of the great powers in Europe as well as escaping from almost certain national disaster at the last minute.
However he was also an artist, author and philosopher, who conceived and promoted the concept of Enlightened absolutism. Austrian empress Maria Theresa succeeded in bringing about a favorable conclusion for her in the to war for recognition of her succession to the throne.
The Treaty of Hubertusburg ruled that Austria and Saxony had to relinquish all claims to Silesia. Prussia, that had nearly doubled its territory was eventually recognized as a great European power with the consequence that the politics of the following century were fundamentally influenced by German dualism , the rivalry of Austria and Prussia for supremacy in Central Europe.
The concept of Enlightened absolutism, although rejected by the nobility and citizenry, was advocated in Prussia and Austria and implemented since Prussian king Frederick II defended the idea in an essay and argued that the benevolent monarch simply is the first servant of the state , who effects his absolute political power for the benefit of the population as a whole.
A number of legal reforms e. During to Prussia instigated the partitions of Poland by occupying the western territories of the former Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Austria and Russia resolved to acquire the remaining lands with the effect that Poland ceased to exist as a sovereign state until Completely overshadowed by Prussia and Austria, according to historian Hajo Holborn , the smaller German states were generally characterized by political lethargy and administrative inefficiency, often compounded by rulers who were more concerned with their mistresses and their hunting dogs than with the affairs of state.
Bavaria was especially unfortunate in this regard; it was a rural land with very heavy debts and few growth centers.
Saxony was in economically good shape, although its government was seriously mismanaged, and numerous wars had taken their toll. During the time when Prussia rose rapidly within Germany, Saxony was distracted by foreign affairs.
The house of Wettin concentrated on acquiring and then holding on to the Polish throne which was ultimately unsuccessful.
In Württemberg the duke lavished funds on palaces, mistresses, great celebration, and hunting expeditions. Many of the city-states of Germany were run by bishops, who in reality were from powerful noble families and showed scant interest in religion.
None developed a significant reputation for good government. He combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, and a militaristic approach toward diplomacy.
Hanover did not have to support a lavish court—its rulers were also kings of England and resided in London. George III , elector ruler from to , never once visited Hanover.
The local nobility who ran the country opened the University of Göttingen in ; it soon became a world-class intellectual center.
Baden sported perhaps the best government of the smaller states. Karl Friedrich ruled well for 73 years — and was an enthusiast for The Enlightenment ; he abolished serfdom in The smaller states failed to form coalitions with each other, and were eventually overwhelmed by Prussia.
In the process, Prussia became too heterogeneous, lost its identity, and by the s had become an administrative shell of little importance.
The nobility represented the first estate in a typical early modern kingdom of Christian Europe, with Germany being no exception.
The empire's pluralistic character also applied to its nobility, that greatly varied in power and wealth, ideas, ambition, loyalty and education.
However, there existed the distinction between the Imperial nobility , the direct vassals of the emperor and the Territorial nobility , who have received their fief from the territorial princes.
In an ever more complex economy, they struggled to compete with the patricians and merchants of the cities. The Thirty Years War marked the reversal of fortunes for those noblemen, who seized the initiative and had understood the requirements of higher education for a lucrative position in the post-war territorial administration.
In the Prussian lands east of the Elbe river the system of manorial jurisdiction guaranteed near universal legal power and economic freedom for the local lords, called Junkers , who dominated not only the localities, but also the Prussian court, and especially the Prussian army.
Increasingly after , a centralized Prussian government based in Berlin took over the powers of the nobles, which in terms of control over the peasantry had been almost absolute.
To help the nobility avoid indebtedness, Berlin set up a credit institution to provide capital loans in , and extended the loan network to peasants in When the German Empire was established in , the Junker nobility controlled the army and the Navy, the bureaucracy, and the royal court; they generally set governmental policies.
Peasants continued to center their lives in the village, where they were members of a corporate body, and to help manage the community resources and monitor the community life.
In the East, they were serfs who were bound permanently to parcels of land. In most of Germany, farming was handled by tenant farmers who paid rents and obligatory services to the landlord, who was typically a nobleman.
Peasant leaders supervised the fields and ditches and grazing rights, maintained public order and morals, and supported a village court which handled minor offenses.
Inside the family the patriarch made all the decisions, and tried to arrange advantageous marriages for his children.
Much of the villages' communal life centered around church services and holy days. In Prussia, the peasants drew lots to choose conscripts required by the army.
The noblemen handled external relationships and politics for the villages under their control, and were not typically involved in daily activities or decisions.
The emancipation of the serfs came in —, beginning with Schleswig in The peasants were now ex-serfs and could own their land, buy and sell it, and move about freely.
The nobles approved for now they could buy land owned by the peasants. The chief reformer was Baron vom Stein — , who was influenced by The Enlightenment , especially the free market ideas of Adam Smith.
A bank was set up so that landowners could borrow government money to buy land from peasants the peasants were not allowed to use it to borrow money to buy land until The result was that the large landowners obtained larger estates, and many peasants became landless tenants, or moved to the cities or to America.
The other German states imitated Prussia after In sharp contrast to the violence that characterized land reform in the French Revolution, Germany handled it peacefully.
In Schleswig the peasants, who had been influenced by the Enlightenment, played an active role; elsewhere they were largely passive.
Indeed, for most peasants, customs and traditions continued largely unchanged, including the old habits of deference to the nobles whose legal authority remained quite strong over the villagers.
Although the peasants were no longer tied to the same land as serfs had been, the old paternalistic relationship in East Prussia lasted into the 20th century.
The agrarian reforms in northwestern Germany in the era — were driven by progressive governments and local elites.
They abolished feudal obligations and divided collectively owned common land into private parcels and thus created a more efficient market-oriented rural economy, which increased productivity and population growth and strengthened the traditional social order because wealthy peasants obtained most of the former common land, while the rural proletariat was left without land; many left for the cities or America.
Meanwhile, the division of the common land served as a buffer preserving social peace between nobles and peasants.
Around the Catholic monasteries, which had large land holdings, were nationalized and sold off by the government. A major social change occurring between —, depending on region, was the end of the traditional "whole house" "ganzes Haus" system, in which the owner's family lived together in one large building with the servants and craftsmen he employed.
No longer did the owner's wife take charge of all the females in the different families in the whole house.
In the new system, farm owners became more professionalized and profit-oriented. They managed the fields and the household exterior according to the dictates of technology, science, and economics.
Farm wives supervised family care and the household interior, to which strict standards of cleanliness, order, and thrift applied.
The result was the spread of formerly urban bourgeois values into rural Germany. The lesser families were now living separately on wages.
They had to provide for their own supervision, health, schooling, and old-age. At the same time, because of the demographic transition, there were far fewer children, allowing for much greater attention to each child.
Increasingly the middle-class family valued its privacy and its inward direction, shedding too-close links with the world of work.
This allowed for the emergence of working-class organizations. It also allowed for declining religiosity among the working-class, who were no longer monitored on a daily basis.
Since the midth century recognition and application of Enlightenment ideas, higher cultural, intellectual and spiritual standards have led to higher quality works of art in music, philosophy, science and literature.
Philosopher Christian Wolff — was a pioneering author on a near universal number of Enlightenment rationality topics in Germany and established German as the language of philosophic reasoning, scholarly instruction and research.
Frederick William offered his co-religionists, who are oppressed and assailed for the sake of the Holy Gospel and its pure doctrine The French Lyceum in Berlin was established in and the French language had by the end of the 17th century replaced Latin to be spoken universally in international diplomacy.
The nobility and the educated middle-class of Prussia and the various German states increasingly used the French language in public conversation in combination with universal cultivated manners.
Like no other German state, Prussia had access to and the skill set for the application of pan-European Enlightenment ideas to develop more rational political and administrative institutions.
The reforms were aided by the country's strong urban structure and influential commercial groups, who modernized pre Saxony along the lines of classic Enlightenment principles.
Johann Gottfried von Herder — broke new ground in philosophy and poetry, as a leader of the Sturm und Drang movement of proto-Romanticism.
Weimar Classicism "Weimarer Klassik" was a cultural and literary movement based in Weimar that sought to establish a new humanism by synthesizing Romantic, classical, and Enlightenment ideas.
The movement, from until , involved Herder as well as polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe — and Friedrich Schiller — , a poet and historian.
Herder argued that every folk had its own particular identity, which was expressed in its language and culture.
This legitimized the promotion of German language and culture and helped shape the development of German nationalism. Schiller's plays expressed the restless spirit of his generation, depicting the hero's struggle against social pressures and the force of destiny.
German music, sponsored by the upper classes, came of age under composers Johann Sebastian Bach — , Joseph Haydn — , and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart — Königsberg philosopher Immanuel Kant — tried to reconcile rationalism and religious belief, individual freedom, and political authority.
Kant's work contained basic tensions that would continue to shape German thought — and indeed all of European philosophy — well into the 20th century.
Before the 19th century, young women lived under the economic and disciplinary authority of their fathers until they married and passed under the control of their husbands.
In order to secure a satisfactory marriage, a woman needed to bring a substantial dowry. In the wealthier families, daughters received their dowry from their families, whereas the poorer women needed to work in order to save their wages so as to improve their chances to wed.
Under the German laws, women had property rights over their dowries and inheritances, a valuable benefit as high mortality rates resulted in successive marriages.
Before , the majority of women lived confined to society's private sphere, the home. The Age of Reason did not bring much more for women: men, including Enlightenment aficionados, believed that women were naturally destined to be principally wives and mothers.
Within the educated classes, there was the belief that women needed to be sufficiently educated to be intelligent and agreeable interlocutors to their husbands.
However, the lower-class women were expected to be economically productive in order to help their husbands make ends meet.
German reaction to the French Revolution was mixed at first. German intellectuals celebrated the outbreak, hoping to see the triumph of Reason and The Enlightenment.
The royal courts in Vienna and Berlin denounced the overthrow of the king and the threatened spread of notions of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
By , the execution of the French king and the onset of the Terror disillusioned the Bildungsbürgertum educated middle classes.
Reformers said the solution was to have faith in the ability of Germans to reform their laws and institutions in peaceful fashion.
Europe was racked by two decades of war revolving around France's efforts to spread its revolutionary ideals, and the opposition of reactionary royalty.
War broke out in as Austria and Prussia invaded France, but were defeated at the Battle of Valmy The German lands saw armies marching back and forth, bringing devastation albeit on a far lower scale than the Thirty Years' War , almost two centuries before , but also bringing new ideas of liberty and civil rights for the people.
Prussia and Austria ended their failed wars with France but with Russia partitioned Poland among themselves in and France took control of the Rhineland , imposed French-style reforms, abolished feudalism, established constitutions, promoted freedom of religion, emancipated Jews, opened the bureaucracy to ordinary citizens of talent, and forced the nobility to share power with the rising middle class.
Napoleon created the Kingdom of Westphalia — as a model state. When the French tried to impose the French language, German opposition grew in intensity.
Napoleon established direct or indirect control over most of western Europe, including the German states apart from Prussia and Austria.
The old Holy Roman Empire was little more than a farce; Napoleon simply abolished it in while forming new countries under his control.
Under Frederick William II 's weak rule Induced by the queen and a pro-war party Frederick William joined the Fourth Coalition in October Napoleon easily defeated the Prussian army at the Battle of Jena and occupied Berlin.
Prussia lost its recently acquired territories in western Germany, its army was reduced to 42, men, no trade with Britain was allowed and Berlin had to pay Paris high reparations and fund the French army of occupation.
Saxony changed sides to support Napoleon and joined the Confederation of the Rhine. Ruler Frederick Augustus I was rewarded with the title of king and given a slice of Poland taken from Prussia.
A series of battles followed and Austria joined the alliance. Napoleon was decisively defeated in the Battle of Leipzig in late The German states of the Confederation of the Rhine defected to the Coalition against Napoleon, who rejected any peace terms.
Coalition forces invaded France in early , Paris fell and in April Napoleon surrendered. Prussia as one of the winners at the Congress of Vienna , gained extensive territory.
In continental Europe was in a state of overall turbulence and exhaustion, as a consequence of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
The victorious members of the Coalition had negotiated a new peaceful balance of powers in Vienna and agreed to maintain a stable German heartland that keeps French imperialism at bay.
After a revolution, the Second Reich ended, and the democratic Weimar Republic began. After the war, there were a lot of problems with money in Germany because of the Peace Treaty of Versailles , which made Germany pay for the costs of World War I and the worldwide Great Depression.
The Third Reich was Nazi Germany ; it lasted 12 years, from to On 23 March , the Reichstag parliament passed the Enabling Act, which let Hitler's government command the country without help from the Reichstag and the presidency.
This gave him total control of the country and the government. Hitler wanted to unify all Germans in one state and did this by taking over places where Germans lived, such as Austria and Czechoslovakia ; Hitler also wanted the land in Poland that Germany had owned before , but Poland refused to give it to him.
He then invaded Poland. In the beginning of the war, Germany was winning and even successfully invaded France. It managed to take over much of Europe.
On 8 May , Germany gave up after Berlin was captured, Hitler had killed himself a week earlier. Other events happened during the war in Nazi Germany, including the Holocaust , the mass genocide of Jews and other peoples, for which some Nazis were punished in the Nuremberg Trials.
In there was a process of reforms in East Germany, which lead to the opening of the Berlin Wall and to the end of socialist rule in Germany.
After that, East Germany joined West Germany in Germany is a constitutional federal democracy. It has a parliamentary system , and the parliament elects the head of government, the Federal Chancellor Bundeskanzler.
The people of Germany vote for the parliament, called the Bundestag Federal Assembly , every four years. The Bundesrat can help make some laws.
The head of state is the Bundespräsident Federal President. This person has no real powers but can order elections for the Bundestag.
The judiciary branch the part of German politics that deals with courts has a Bundesverfassungsgericht Federal Constitutional Court.
It can stop any act by the law-makers or other leaders if they feel they go against Germany's constitution.
Germany is one of the largest countries in Europe. It stretches from the North Sea and Baltic Sea in the north to the high mountains of the Alps in the south.
In the middle, there are low mountain ranges covered in large forests. Between these and the Alps, there is another plain created by glaciers during the ice ages.
Germany also contains parts of Europe's longest rivers, such as the Rhine which makes up a part of Germany's western border, while Oder River is on its eastern border , the Danube and the Elbe.
In these states there are Kreise districts and independent cities, which do not belong to any district. Germany has one of the world's largest technologically powerful economies.
Bringing West and East Germany together and making their economy work is still taking a long time and costing a lot of money. The unemployment rate of Germany was 5.
Germany is one of the G8 countries. The main industry area is the Ruhr area. In Germany live mostly Germans and many ethnic minorities.
There are at least seven million people from other countries living in Germany. Some have political asylum , some are guest workers Gastarbeiter , and some are their families.
Many people from poor or dangerous countries go to Germany for safety. Many others do not get permission to live in Germany.
About 50, ethnic Danish people live in Schleswig-Holstein, in the north. About 12, people in Germany speak Frisian ; this language is the closest living language to English.
In northern Germany, people outside towns speak Low Saxon. Many people have come to Germany from Turkey about 1. Other small groups of people in Germany are Croats 0.
There are also some ethnic Germans who lived in the old Soviet Union 1. These people have German passports , so they are not counted as foreigners.
A lot of these people do not speak German at home. Germany has one of the world's highest levels of schooling, technology, and businesses.
The number of young people who attend universities is now three times more than it was after the end of World War II, and the trade and technical schools of Germany are some of the best in the world.
A large social welfare system gives people money when they are ill, unemployed, or similarly disadvantaged. Millions of Germans travel outside of their country each year.
In there were wrong reports in some African, Arabic , etc. False promises of money, easy living and easy jobs were made.
Germany is a very densely populated country, and especially in cities the housing situation is difficult and rents are high.
Already in there were 39, homeless people in Germany and , people without apartment. The video is about refugees, who have been living in a sports gym in Berlin for over a year with no privacy.
In the video people discuss amongst others why there are problems to find living space in containers. The containers are similar to those in Zaatari refugee camp.
Germany's constitution says that all people can believe in any religion they want to, and that no one is allowed to discriminate against somebody because of the person's religion.
In ancient times Germany was largely pagan. Roman Catholicism was the biggest religion in Germany up to the 15th century, but a major religious change called the Reformation changed this.
In , Martin Luther said that the Catholic Church used religion to make money. Luther started Protestantism , which is as big as the Catholic religion in Germany today.
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